Editor-in-Chief: Kenneth D. Candido, MD


About IPM Reports

Interventional Pain Management Reports (IPM Reports) is an open access electronic publication of The American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians and a Clinical Companion Journal to Pain Physician.

IPM Reports is a peer-reviewed, multi-disciplinary, open access journal written by and directed to an audience of interventional pain physicians, clinicians and basic scientists with an interest in interventional pain management and pain medicine.

IPM Reports presents the latest studies, research, and information vital to those in the emerging specialty of interventional pain management – and critical to the people they serve.

Open Access Statement: Interventional Pain Management Reports is committed to real and immediate open access for academic work. We operate under a Creative Commons license (CC-BY-NC). All of IPM Reports manuscripts are free to access immediately from the date of publication. There are no author charges prior to publication, and no charge for any reader to download manuscripts for their own scholarly use. Readers can read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles and reviews, or use them for any other lawful non-commercial purpose. Prior permission from the publisher or the author is not required but you must credit the author and link to the original site of publication. For commercial copies, IPM Reports has contracted with Reprints Desk. For a price quote, please send an email to Holly Long at hlong@asipp.org stating what article you would like copies of and where they will be distributed

Copyright 2018, entire contents, by the American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians. All rights reserved.

ASIPP Publishing • 81 Lakeview Drive • Paducah, KY • 270-554-9412 • Fax: 270-554-5394 

IPM Reports online: ISSN 2575-9841) is a publication of the American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians that publishes 6 issues a year. As an official publication of the American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians, IPM Reports serves as a vehicle for the transmission of knowledge related to the study and practice of interventional pain management. The American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians assumes no liability for any material published herein. No editor, author, owner, publisher, or any other entity accepts responsibility for any loss or damage arising from actions or decisions based upon the information included in this publication. The individual medical practitioner is ultimately responsible for the treatment of patients and the interpretation